NCCDC 2013 – Red Team Recap


nccdc

 

 

 

 

 

This past April (4/19 to 4/21) I had the great pleasure and experience of joining the Red Team at 9th NCCDC competition.   It was actually my 2nd year on the Red Team and 4th year to attend in total (I judged in 2010 and 2011).  McAfee is actually a perpetual sponsor of this event.  That being said, I have my own selfish agenda when I attend.

Joining in as part of the Red Team is, by far, on of the most educational experiences I could possibly put myself in.   Not only are you tossed into a room w/ folks like Mubix, Vyrus, Raphael Mudge, and others – but also you are on a limited schedule and from the time that the competition starts it’s heated and non-stop.

The general strategy this year was to lay down all our toys and persistence (backdoors, beacons, RATs and other tools) on Day 1.   We made very little noise, hoping that the competing teams would gain a false sense of confidence and not notice our presence on their systems.   This way on Day 2 when the chaos commences, and the teams choose to just ‘restore from backup’ or ‘revert snapshots’ and the like, they end up restoring all our persistent tools and we retain access and ownership.

DarkComet Client Console

DarkComet Client Console

 

 

 

 

And . . . .. . It worked!

 

Different individuals on the Red Team had their unique tools and methods to gain and retain access and unset the teams’ activities.   As the McAfee guy, I choose to rely on some old, tried and true (and very accessible RATs).  Most of my activities centered on the use of DarkComet and, to a far lesser degree, DNA.

 

RAT Remote Process View

RAT Remote Process View

My philosophy was driven by two primacy goals.   First, I know these things work realllllllllly well.  And with these RATs on the box, I can control and own everything.  Second, and possibly more interesting, is that if these tools work, I know that the teams are not putting any effort into installing/deploying even the most basic endpoint/host-based AV solutions.   This is especially intriguing because, as a sponsor, McAfee provided the competition with our software.   I purposely did NOT do any crypting/packing/obfuscation on the RATs I generated.   I know that McAfee (and just about all other) vendors DID detect these things.  Yet, I still managed to install and persist on most of the hosts that I deployed to (deployed via Cobalt Strike btw).

When the competition was over, I chatted with a few competitors, and mentioned this fact.  I immediately saw the gears start turning.  I could tell they had a real “Ahhhh we should have done that” moment.  Not to mention, that McAfee (and others) detect meterpreter/MSF listeners and Trojans as malware/PUPs.  Those could have been curtailed as well.

Each year, the teams have to setup, maintain, and safeguard an environment for a faux company/entity.  This year the teams were tasked with tasked with the environment of a Correctional Institute.   This includes databases for tracking the whereabouts of prisoners, an e-commerce site for a prisoner commissary, and more.  From the Red Team perspective, this gives us some of our big bets for getting points deducted from the teams.   For example if you kill/mangle/destroy the database for tracking prisoner and personnel, that’s one of the high point items.   After all, they don’t want an IT issue to allow prisoners to go unaccounted for or escape, etc.   Other hot items include public web site defacement and acquisition of PII (personally identifiable information).  For added fun, many of us defaced the web sites by posting the company’s PII for all to see.

Defaced with PII

Defaced with PII

 

All and all it was a fantastic experience.   I look forward to future activities with this competition.

UTSA shot a documentary this year.  I’ll post details on that once it’s released.    However, if you’d like to get some really detailed info, Hak5 released a documentary filmed at the 2012 event.   It features great interviews and ‘behind the scenes’ Red Team action.   I’m not interviewed, but you can see the top of my head in a couple shots!!

Hak5 Doc - Jim's Head

Hak5 Doc – Jim’s Head

 

 

2012 Hak5 Documentary

Additional Blogs on NCCDC 2013

NCCDC 2013 Red Team Brief - http://mcaf.ee/uodvk

Bonus:   We recently did our 2nd AudioParasitics episode with the great Raphael Mudge.   This time we have a full and glorious video demo of Cobalt Strike in action.  We actually walk though scenarios and give you details on how some of these Red Team activities actually occur.

AudioParasitics Episode 141 (video) - http://mcaf.ee/gep69

 

 

 

Guerilla researcher created epic botnet to scan billions of IP addresses

In one of the more audacious and ethically questionable research projects in recent memory, an anonymous hacker built a botnet of more than 420,000 Internet-connected devices and used it to perform one of the most comprehensive surveys ever to measure the insecurity of the global network.

In all, the nine-month scanning project found 420 million IPv4 addresses that responded to probes and 36 million more addresses that had one or more ports open. A large percentage of the unsecured devices bore the hallmarks of broadband modems, network routers, and other devices with embedded operating systems that typically aren't intended to be exposed to the outside world. The researcher found a total of 1.3 billion addresses in use, including 141 million that were behind a firewall and 729 million that returned reverse domain name system records. There were no signs of life from the remaining 2.3 billion IPv4 addresses.

Continually scanning almost 4 billion addresses for nine months is a big job. In true guerilla research fashion, the unknown hacker developed a small scanning program that scoured the Internet for devices that could be logged into using no account credentials at all or the usernames and passwords of either "root" or "admin." When the program encountered unsecured devices, it installed itself on them and used them to conduct additional scans. The viral growth of the botnet allowed it to infect about 100,000 devices within a day of the program's release. The critical mass allowed the hacker to scan the Internet quickly and cheaply. With about 4,000 clients, it could scan one port on all 3.6 billion addresses in a single day. Because the project ran 1,000 unique probes on 742 separate ports, and possibly because the binary was uninstalled each time an infected device was restarted, the hacker commandeered a total of 420,000 devices to perform the survey.

Read 16 remaining paragraphs | Comments

Tool Talk: Cracking the Code on XtremeRAT

Late last week, reports began to surface that the Israeli police (along with other regional law enforcement) were targeted by a malware attack.  The entry vector was described as a phishing campaign sent from Benny Gantz (head of the Israeli Defense Forces).  Initially, details and indicators around the malware were beyond sparse. Aside from the FROM: address, little was known that could assist in any sort of investigation. After nearly 24 hours from the first reports, both details and samples of the malware started to flow. As soon as we could confirm details of the phish email and the malicious attachments, we were able to cross-reference sample data already in our malware database and connect the dots.

Generic Dropper.p (Xtrat)

Generic Dropper.p (XtremeRAT)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is where, from the research side, things begin to get fun.

Automated malware analysis is nothing new to our industry. Most vendors (ourselves included) have tools to handle this internally, and assist our skilled human analysts with proper classification, documentation, and other recurring tasks that must occur with the daily barrage of new and unique malicious binaries. The bar for this threat, however, has been raised. With ValidEdge, we were able to generate enormous amounts of usable and actionable data from the execution of malware samples. We get feedback from basic static analysis, as well as from runtime data. We get all the usual system modification data, and full and complete network/communication data, and samples and memory dumps from second-level threats (dropped, created, downloaded entities). And it’s all done in a safe environment, with extremely robust reporting.

To fully illustrate, let’s focus on the Trojan that affected the Israeli police. In the McAfee universe, we detect this threat as Generic Dropper.p.

To start with, you simply submit your sample(s) to the ValidEdge appliance/host. The ways to do that vary depending on implementation. In my setup, it’s as simple as dropping the file, via FTP, on the appliance, then picking up the results set the same way (different directory on the FTP server). Easy and fast. I immediately had a set of results from my submission of the following sample:

Sample Data

 

 

 

 

The result sets are organized as a specific directory structure.

Analysis Report sample

Analysis report sample

This is where we typically end with most tools. The exception here, from my experience, is that there is much more data generated by the appliance to start taking action on.  The way in which the information is organized is also very friendly and workable. Some basic examples follow:

Sample Data

Sample Data

Sample Data 2

Sample Data 2

Sample Data 3

Sample Data 3

Sample Data 4

Sample Data 4

From here we can get enough static data to build a picture of the malware and its behavior. We also have network data and full memory dumps and screenshots at our disposal should we need to dig further.

MemDumps

Memory dumps

PCAPs

PCAPs

All the secondary/dropped files are presented as well. As such, these can be easily analyzed in context.

Dropped Files

Dropped files

Dropped files, specific to this threat, are detected via McAfee Global Threat Intelligence along with the current DATs.

Example:

Name: word.exe
MD5: 2BFE41D7FDB6F4C1E38DB4A5C3EB1211
Detection: Artemis!2BFE41D7FDB6

At this point you have plenty of information to understand what this threat is doing, how it communicates, and much more. Some would argue that deep malware analysis is an art form. But to embark on that sort of journey you need enough data to make constructive, creative, and accurate decisions. Tools like ValidEdge do exactly that.

If you would like to learn more, you can read the following sources:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bitdefender Internet Security 2012 Review

Introduction I do examine Security Software now and then to see what’s going on, if there are any new developments and what the state of affairs is when it comes to consumer grade Antivirus and Firewall software. Countermeasures are useful, especially when it comes to less tech savvy users (which we may happen to live [...]

Read the full post at darknet.org.uk